The joyful time span of pregnancy constantly reminds you of the bundle of happiness you and your partner are about to receive. However, this gestational period can also prove to be a time where certain tension stirring events can set off your mental alarm. Bleeding during pregnancy is one of those events that can be both a reason for concern in regard to the well being of the mother and the unborn child or be completely harmless.
There are numerous factors or conditions that can be pointed out for mild, moderate or severe degree of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Below mentioned are the reasons that can lead to vaginal bleeding during the triple trimester pregnancy.
Causes Behind Vaginal Bleeding In The First Twelve Weeks Of Pregnancy
There are many factors due to which a pregnant women experiences bleeding during the early phase and it affects approximately twenty to thirty percent of the total pregnancies.
Bleeding During Implantation Of Fertilized Egg
There is absolutely nothing to worry about the minimal amount of bleeding or dark brown spotting during the phase of early pregnancy as it is related to the normal process of egg implantation into the lining of the uterus. In certain cases, it is barely noticeable and most of the time mistaken for menstrual period by the female probably because she is not aware of her pregnancy. This type of scanty bleeding is a normal pregnancy related change brought on by the burrowing activity of the fertilized egg.
The small sized polyps are nothing but an excessive growth consisting of benign tissue that can initiate bleeding from the vagina in early pregnancy.
Conditions That Predispose Expectant Mothers To Threatened Miscarriage
In case the urinary tract gets negatively affected by either infection, as a result of certain medications, state of dehydration or trauma of physical nature, vaginal bleeding can ensue. However, this does not indicate that the pregnancy has failed as the developing fetus is still viable within the uterus (seen using the ultrasound)
Partial Or Incomplete Miscarriage
Prior to the thirteenth week of first trimester, in many women the cervix opens up leading to passage of not only blood but some of the fetus and/or placenta along with clots too.
Such pregnancy loss is accompanied with bleeding which is heavy and persists till complete expulsion or removal of the fetus from the uterus occurs.
If an expectant women experiences cramping as well as painless vaginal bleeding of bright red colour that subsides spontaneously, an ultrasound is needed to check on the vitality of the fetus. An empty uterus signifies completed miscarriage and is regarded as the most frequently observed cause of bleeding in the early phase of pregnancy.
Demise Of The Embryo
Embryonic demise is another cause for bleeding in the first trimester. It refers to a condition in which the developing fetus loses life post uterine wall implantation. Trauma and infection are some of the causes for vaginal bleeding.
Inflammation Of The Cervix
There are two reasons that lead to this condition, namely infection or ectopy. The common yeast infection or any of the sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, chlamydia or gonorrhea can lead to bleeding in a pregnant woman. Similarly, due to the hormone changes in pregnancy, some delicate internal cells are exposed to the outer cervix portion. The chemical and physical change to which they are subjected can initiate spotting especially after a sexual intercourse.
Ectopic Or Tubal Pregnancy And Vaginal Bleeding
Bleeding in such cases can be regarded as the one of the most life threatening reasons behind vaginal bleeding. A tubal pregnancy is a condition in which, instead of implanting within the wall of the uterus, the egg implants outside and away from the uterus. Fallopian tube is usually the ectopic site the egg implants in. As the fetus grows, rupture of the fallopian tube occurs leading to discharge of blood along with pain and a light headed feeling.
If you are suffering from molar pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease, the results of your ultrasound will show the growth of an abnormal tissue in the uterus instead of a normal fetus. The most common presenting feature of this growth is vaginal bleeding.
Causes Of Bleeding In Second And Third Trimester Of Pregnancy
It has been observed that a majority of cases with vaginal bleeding in pregnant women are due to certain placenta related problems. Bleeding after the first trimester is considered harmful for the unborn baby and the mother.
With the growth of the fetus during the all the trimesters, a structure known as placenta varies in its position within the uterus. Under normal conditions, the position of the placenta should be nearing the top thereby allowing the cervix to dilate for safe delivery of the infant. In cases where placenta is positioned next to the cervix leading to partial or complete covering of the cervix, sudden onset of vaginal bleeding occurs sometimes accompanied by cramps.
Women with large placenta, abnormal uterus, past history of many pregnancies or scarring of the uterine wall due to c section or abortion are prone to painless vaginal bleeding of bright red colour.
Placental Abruption And Bleeding
In rare pregnancies that reach the third trimester, the perfectly normal and functional placenta detaches from the uterine wall leading to blood accumulation in between the placenta and the uterus. Abnormally high blood pressure, trauma or use of cocaine and tobacco can lead to this type of abnormal vaginal bleeding in the form of either dark coloured clots or blood. This is considered as a state of medical emergency and results in either premature birth of death of the fetus.
Rupture Of The Uterus
Heavy bleeding occurs in women who experience this extremely critical situation where the uterus partially or completely ruptures, pushing the fetus up into the abdominal cavity. Both the fetal as well as maternal morbidity is quite high in such cases.
Time of Labour
Slight vaginal bleeding of pink, red or brown colour mixed with mucus is normal during the premature or normal labour time.
Information On When To Call For Medical Aid
If you have been experiencing light bleeding or even spotting during the early days of pregnancy, it is time to report to a health care professional with information on the frequency and extent of bleeding for proper evaluation of the cause and consequent treatment. Immediate medical intervention is needed in the below mentioned conditions.
If the duration of vaginal bleeding in any pregnant woman exceeds twenty four hours or in cases where additional symptoms of fever, intensification of pain and dizziness occurs, you must report to your doctor immediately.
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